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D-Dimer (DD) is the final degradation product of fibrin by plasmin. Its presence indicates that thrombosis has occurred i.e. activation of clotting, fibrin formation, fibrin stabilization by factor-XIIIa and finally fibrin degradation by plasmin (fibrinolytic system). Increased DD can occur in non-pathologic situations such as age >50y, cigarette smoking, pregnancy, puerperium, immobility and recent surgery. Race and ethnicity also affect the results. Pathologic conditions include:

  • Congestive cardiac failure
  • Stroke
  • Acute coronary syndromes
  • Infection
  • Liver or renal disease
  • Pregnancy, pre-eclampsia
  • Peripheral arteriopathy
  • DIC
  • Hemorrhage
  • Arterial and venous thromboembolism
  • Thrombolytic agents
  • Malignancy
  • Trauma
  • Burns

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